Susan Thorpe-Vargas, PhD and
John C. Gargill, MA, MBA, MS
October 1985, North Carolina veterinarian William Martin signed
up for a class offered by IVAS, the International Veterinary
Acupuncture Society. It consisted of a four-day course once a
month for four months and a certification test at the end. The
first part of the course covered the Chinese history and theory
of acupuncture, including yin and yang, the different meridians
and alarm points. He explains: "This did not relate at all to
veterinary medicine that I had learned in the Western world." It
was so foreign, in fact, that while traveling home after that
first session, Martin decided he would drop out of the course.
Upon his return, he learned that his 5-year-old Miniature
Dachshund had been paralyzed for five days with an intervertebral disc problem. His associate had tried the typical
Western treatments, but the dog's condition had not improved. "I
immediately thought I would really test the acupuncture stuff,
so I called one of the teachers that I had met at the school,"
Martin relates. "Over the telephone we did some hands-on
diagnostics. He told me where and how to insert regular
hypodermic needles in acupuncture points". Within four hours,
the Dachshund was standing. Martin calls it his first miracle of
acupuncture. "I immediately decided to continue with the
course," he says. Martin's story is just one in a substantial
collection of anecdotes attesting to acupuncture's effectiveness
and leading to the growing popularity of this ancient practice
in the Western world.
In the following we will consider the philosophies of traditional Chinese
medicine (TCM), how and why many veterinarians now are using acupuncture, the
illnesses commonly treated with the technique and the competing scientific
theories that attempt to explain it.
An Ancient Art
In the narrowest sense, acupuncture is the application of small-gauge needles
to various points on the body for the purpose of eliciting physiological
responses in the treatment of almost any disease or condition, and it seems
especially useful for relieving pain. In a broader sense, acupuncture is an
ancient procedure used in TCM for the treatment of whole-body conditions.
No one really knows when or where it started, but it has ancient roots. A
primitive acupuncture-like therapy was practiced in India some 7000 years ago,
and Stone Age humans used fishbone needles in China 5000 years ago.(1) A large
body of written information about the practice has survived the ages and grown
with time (2).
One of the earliest records of veterinary acupuncture was some 3000 years ago
in India for the treatment of elephants; however, the father of veterinary
acupuncture generally is considered to be Shun Yang (480 BC) from China. The
earliest American medical journal reference the authors could find to
acupuncture's use in human medicine was in 1836; however, European writers of
the late 1600s had published on the subject earlier (3,4). Interestingly, Sir
William Osler, who taught at Harvard and Yale and who gave the world its current
residency system of medical education, wrote of acupuncture in 1892 (5). The
procedure did not make it into the New England Journal of Medicine until 1926,
but these references were positive, indicating that acupuncture could be an
appropriate and useful medical technique.
The procedure had been used for a variety of illnesses, but it began to fall
into obscurity in the 1940s in the United States as people turned to newly
emerging, potent, increasingly ailment-specific antibiotics to treat their
In 1973, The American Medical Association Council of Scientific Affairs
declared acupuncture an experimental medical procedure. The increased interest
was due in no small part to Richard Nixon's efforts to improve relations with
China, where acupuncture was and still is a common practice. In fact, James
Reston, a member of Nixon's press corps in China, had surgery using acupuncture
as an anesthesia, which later was widely reported in the press. By 1983, the
American Osteopathic Association endorsed the use of acupuncture as a part of
Although acupuncture terminology still is largely based on philosophy, it has
become apparent that the scientific method has crept into the practice with the
result that the Western veterinary and medical establishments are less able to
discount acupuncture as a pastime of shamans.
Along with acupuncture's increased use in human medicine, veterinary
acupuncture has moved closer to mainstream practices. It also might be said that
the mainstream has moved closer to acupuncture, given that chapters on
acupuncture now are standard in many major veterinary texts. In addition,
acupuncture has become a big business worldwide. Today nearly 3 million
veterinary and medical practitioners, assistants and pharmacists are trained in
acupuncture. Of this number it is estimated that 150,000 are veterinarians and
700,000 are paraveterinary assistants.
The IVAS has become the primary professional society for veterinary
acupuncturists in the United States, complete with a newsletter, a journal and a
World Wide Web site.
An Eastern Perspective
To understand the basics of acupuncture it is important to comprehend the
tradition out of which it developed. In TCM, animals and humans are viewed as
tiny parts of an infinite universe subject to laws that govern all living and
nonliving things. The fundamental concept is that an animal or person who
follows these general laws of nature will reap the benefits of good health.
Acupuncture is not a stand-alone procedure in this framework; rather, it is a
part of a much larger medical system encompassing acupuncture, moxibustion (the
burning of moxa, a soft downy material, on the skin in the treatment of various
disorders), massage, breathing exercises, nutrition, herbal medicine and even
philosophy of life (6).
The goal of TCM is to diagnose imbalances in the life force (Qi), determine
their causes (etiology of the disease) and subsequently remove those causes from
the patient's environment (treatment). TCM views disease as an imbalance between
two polarities of Qi, yin (-) and yang (+). Within this conceptual framework,
acupuncture is used to "communicate" with body organs and tissues through
special channels or meridians. (There is no known physiological equivalent to
these energy pathways.) Health and healing in this context is the integration
and restoration of balance or harmony of Qi. This view has been validated most
recently by the discovery of the relationship between brain chemistry and the
immune system. Some critics assert that Western medicine has a mechanistic view
of health, reducing disease and illness to specific cellular and molecular
systems. Outstanding medical advances have been made using the western
viewpoint, but, according to the Eastern tradition, the sum of the whole body
still is greater than its parts (6).
The effectiveness of many traditional acupuncture points has been determined
experimentally. Some 670 of them have survived the test of time. In her book,
Between Heaven and Earth, Harriet Beinfield proposed an analogy: "comparing
an acupuncturist with a Western veterinary or medical practitioner is similar to
comparing a gardener and a mechanic" (7) The gardener considers the totality of
his or her plants' environment (sunlight, density of planting, types and amounts
of fertiliser, temperature, water, etc.), whereas the mechanic searches to
replace or repair a dysfunctional component.
Theories In Practice
To illustrate the differences between the Eastern and Western philosophies as
they relate to veterinary medicine, let us follow a hypothetical canine patient
while she is being examined by a Western-trained clinician and compare this to
the procedures used by a practitioner of TCM. An owner makes an appointment
because her previously housetrained female dog recently has started having
"accidents" in the house, and she wants to rule out a medical basis for the
problem before she addresses it as a behavioral issue. Both practitioners will
be presented with the same symptoms, but their methods of diagnostics will be
At the traditional vet's office, the dog is placed on the examining table,
and the vet asks questions about the frequency and quantity of urination. While
the owner is talking, the vet takes the dog's temperature and then begins to
perform a physical exam that includes listening to the heart and bowel sounds
and palpating the abdomen to check for any masses. The vet suggests several lab
tests to rule out a urinary tract infection and other more serious diseases such
as diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. The total focus of the appointment
is to address the clinical symptoms. In contrast, the vet trained in TCM asks
questions about the dog's behavior and previous history, which may be similar to
the questions that the traditional vet asks, such as: "Does the dog drink small
or large amounts of water at one time?" "When did the behavior start to occur?"
and "How often does it happen?"
The practitioner then goes on to ask what may seem to be unrelated questions.
Does it happen more frequently at a particular time of the day? Does your pet
choose to sleep in the sun, or does she seek out a cool, shady spot? Does she
like to lie on a soft surface, or does she prefer to sleep on a firm supportive
By now the owner may become impatient with answering detailed questions that
do not appear to have anything to do with the problem. But to a practitioner of
TCM, these questions are all valid because the patient is an individual made up
of physical, mental and emotional components. Questions are asked about the
dog's environment, her diet and favorite foods, stressors and behavioral
tendencies in an attempt to consider the "whole," just as the gardener considers
the totality of his or her environment.
While the owner is relating this information, the TCM practitioner observes
the animal's behavior in the exam room, checking her tongue, looking at the
dog's body shape and examining her skin and coat. The next part of the exam
includes listening to the chest with a stethoscope and taking note of the
breathing sounds and the character of her bark.
Just like the Western clinician, the TCM practitioner then palpates the
abdomen and limbs. In addition he or she will check the dog's pulse (which
provides information about organ systems and their locations on energy pathways)
and also will assess specific areas along the back, sides and abdomen. In this
tradition these diagnostic points correspond to specific internal organs.
Finally, the TCM practitioner smells for specific odors emanating from the
eyes, nose, ears and mouth, which all play a part in the diagnostic process.
The Acupuncture Procedure
The lab tests suggested by the traditional Western vet rule out the serious
diseases associated with urinary incontinence, and the diagnosis indicates
oestrogen-responsive atrophy of the muscle of the bladder wall. The allopathic
vet probably will prescribe dosages of DES (diethylstilbestrol), a synthetic
oestrogen, to maintain bladder tone. Although DES is indicated for the treatment
of this kind of incontinence, it has many possible side effects, including skin
and liver problems and mammary tumours.
The difference between the allopathic system of treatment and the system of
TCM boils down to this: In Western medicine, the same disease or condition
normally is treated the same way in all patients; in TCM, the same condition may
and most probably will be treated differently in different patients because the
underlying causes may differ.
In TCM, frequent urination or incontinence usually stems from a weakness in
the kidney yang, which can cause an overall deficiency in the Qi. Incontinence
also is a function of the Qi associated with the spleen, because it is believed
the spleen keeps organs functioning properly and can be stimulated to treat
herniations, prolapses, etc.
Treatment most likely would consist of using needles to elicit a
physiological response by stimulating specific anatomic loci, in this case,
along the bladder, kidney and spleen meridians. The size of the animal and the
location of the points being treated determine the length of the needles used. A
short needle, about 0.5 inch, is used in points located over bony areas such as
the head or face. The most common size used is about 1 inch long. For larger
dogs or for deeper penetration, there are longer needles available (1.5-2.0
inches). The needles are solid and very flexible, and presterilised disposable
ones are an option.
In the hands of a properly trained clinician, the animal does not appear to
have any discomfort at all. Inserting the needles to the proper depth and angle,
manipulating them during the treatment and removing them all are techniques that
can be achieved only through training and extensive practice. This is why it is
so important to consult a properly certified veterinary acupuncturist.
In the general treatment of ailments, it may take four to eight sessions to
know if acupuncture therapy will be effective, although a response could be seen
even after the first treatment, and improvements often are noticed after the
third. Treatments may last from 10 seconds to 30 minutes and may be recommended
once or twice weekly. The long-term goal is always to fix the number of
treatments to the minimum required for effectiveness. This may be every six
months for arthritis or could be as often as every two months for other
conditions. Both frequency and duration of treatment depend on the animal and
What Can be Treated?
In addition to incontinence, acupuncture, in conjunction with TCM or the body
of Western medicine, may be considered supportive or adjunct therapy for a vast
array of other conditions. Notice of the procedure's versatility was boosted
with tests of its effectiveness in humans. The University of California, Los
Angeles, conducted the Acupuncture Research Project from 1973 to 1980. When the
study began it was viewed as little more than a curiosity-until the findings
started trickling in.
At the outset, medical opposition was high and resolute, especially from
orthopedic surgeons. Public acceptance was more immediate than acceptance by the
medical community. Satisfied patients referred friends, and eventually the
waiting list was six weeks for an appointment. The UCLA Acupuncture Research
Project found various forms of acupuncture were effective for pain relief for
various orthopedic, obstetric and surgical procedures; treatment of chronic
pain; sensorineural hearing loss; compulsive disorders such as obesity and
tobacco and drug addiction; and bronchial asthma.
In other studies conducted on both humans and dogs, acupuncture was found to
be beneficial in cases where analgesics and anti-inflammatory medications had
been ineffective or had demonstrated side effects and in cases where surgery was
not recommended. For example, many practitioners are pleased with the results of
acupuncture in treating arthritis in both humans and canines. One study found
that acupuncture enhanced the efficacy of antibiotic treatment for canine otitis
Favorable acupuncture results have been reported in the treatment of many
other canine conditions, including the following: cardiovascular disorders (9),
chronic respiratory conditions (10), dermatological disorders (11),
gastrointestinal disorders (12), gynecological disorders (13), immune-mediated
disorders (14), male reproductive disorders (15), musculoskeletal disorders
(16), neurological disorders (17), reproductive disorders (18), thoracolumbar
and cervical disc disease (19, 20). Deciding if your dog should be treated with
acupuncture therapy often depends on the dog itself and the condition afflicting
it. "My attitude is that with each and every animal with each and every
condition, you look at what the best comprehensive integrative approach is and
develop a therapeutic plan for that animal," explains Allen Schoen, DVM,
co-editor of "Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine: Principles and
Practice" (Mosby 1998). "Sometimes acupuncture is used as a last resort; at
other times it may be chosen as the first approach [for example] if surgery
would have potential complications, and only if acupuncture didn't work would
you consider surgery."
According to Schoen, before you decide on any treatment approach, it is
important to get a good diagnosis and then look at all the options, including
acupuncture and those offered by conventional medicine. He suggests obtaining a
traditional veterinarian's opinion and diagnosis before deciding if acupuncture
should complement the treatment of veterinary disorders.
Schoen explains there are some situations in which acupuncture may not be
effective or should not be used. For example, extremely anxious pets sometimes
can be so excitable that the release of their own adrenaline counteracts
acupuncture's benefits. Owners also should be aware of specific medical
complications. "[Acupuncture] normally does not interfere with other
conventional approaches," he explains, "but certain medications, such as
corticosteroids, can decrease the effectiveness of acupuncture. [In addition,]
you want to be exceedingly careful in using acupuncture with cancer because
selecting the wrong points can actually accelerate the cancer growth."
Because of this, in Schoen's opinion, only someone who is trained in both
veterinary medicine and veterinary acupuncture should treat your pet if you are
considering acupuncture as an alternative therapy.
How Does it Work?
Now that we've explored the philosophy behind acupuncture and some of those
theories in practice, you may be wondering about the science behind the
technique and if there is any clinical evidence of efficacy that will withstand
modern Western scrutiny. The answer is a qualified "yes." Some modern
practitioners feel that at its most basic level, acupuncture is applied
neurophysiology. We may one day be able to explain acupuncture in those terms.
Today, Western science still has a poor understanding of its mechanisms.
However, the body of anecdotal evidence supporting its effectiveness is
overwhelming. One only has to watch surgery under acupuncture anesthesia to
comprehend that something significant and unfamiliar to the Western way of
thinking is going on. The World Health Organization concluded in 1979 that
"Acupuncture is clearly not a panacea for all ills but sheer weight of evidence
demands that acupuncture must be taken seriously as a clinical procedure of
Acupuncture has had field tests, too. Some 4000 years of application on a
sizeable segment of the world's population makes acupuncture arguably the most
widely practiced and thoroughly tested medical technique in history (21).
In 1998 the American Veterinary Medical Association took this position in its
"Guidelines for Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine" approved by
the American Veterinary Medical Association: "Veterinary acupuncture and
acutherapy are considered an integral part of veterinary medicine. These
techniques should be regarded as surgical and/or medical procedures under state
veterinary practice acts. It is recommended that educational programs be
undertaken by veterinarians before they are considered competent to practice
Besides acupuncture courses that currently are available, there also are some
popular textbooks including Veterinary Acupuncture by Alan Klide and Shiu Kung
(22). A more recent book is Veterinary Acupuncture: Ancient Art of Modern
Medicine (23). For a more general, TCM text suitable for the layperson, we
Four Paws, Five Directions by Cheryl Schwartz (24).
To understand how the theories of acupuncture translate to pain relief, it is
necessary to know a little about how pain is transmitted and experienced by the
body. Pain is a double-edged sword. On one hand it protects us from damage by
warning us of harmful situations, but in chronic conditions it is as
debilitating as the disease process itself. Abnormal chronic pain states are
thought to result from damage within the pain pathway itself, either in the
peripheral nerves or the central nervous system.
The normal protective pain mechanism, which warns of impending or actual
damage, is activated by mechanical, heat or other noxious stimuli impinging on
pain receptors that then transmit the pain impulse to the CNS through afferent
nerve fibers. Unlike other sensory input, pain recognition is subjective, and
previous experiences can influence one's perception of it. This is true of dogs
also; some breeds generally are more stoic than others. Pain perception also is
a function of sex as females have shown a much higher pain threshold.
How is this possible? The body has its own pain-suppression mechanisms. This
built-in analgesic system depends on the presence of endogenous opiates, which
include endorphins. Most Western theories suggest acupuncture either instigates
the production of these opiates or blocks pain transmission. Not unexpectedly,
when East meets West and when philosophy meets science, confusion undoubtedly
will occur. Similarly, when old meets new, questions of quackery from both sides
will arise. Even in light of this, some Western theories have sought to explain
the reported pain-relief benefits of acupuncture. One of those is the gate or
inhibition theory, which proposes that pain is blocked by stimulating sensory
neurones that travel faster than those that transmit pain (25).
Several types of nerve fibers are involved in pain transmission. As mentioned
before, there are three types of pain receptors. Stimuli received from the
mechanical and thermal pain receptors are transmitted over large myelinated
A-delta fibers at a speed close to 30 meters per second. Impulses received by
the other type of receptors travel much more slowly on the C fibers at the rate
of 12 meters per second. A-alpha fibers, which are necessary for the proper
perception of where we are in three-dimensional space, i.e., where our feet are
located, are found in muscles and joints. Alpha-beta neurones are involved in
feeling light touch and the bending of hairs. A-alpha and A-beta fibers transmit
nerve impulses many times faster than A-delta or C fibers. AP stimulation may
induce non-painful sensory information that travels along A-beta fibers. When
the information reaches something called the inhibitory interneurones, it shuts
a nerve transmission "gate" that blocks the conduction of the slower travelling
A-delta and C fibres.
The gate theory may account for some part of the mechanism of acupuncture
analgesia, but it does not explain the delayed effects of treatment or the
results of cross-circulation studies (studies in which the blood circulation of
two animals were connected, and the procedure performed on one produced results
in both). These factors are much better explained by the competing humoral
theory, which states that acupuncture instigates the release of endogenous
(developed from within) opiates that produce a self-induced analgesia (26). In
other words, acupuncture may work by stimulating specific afferent nerves, which
in turn activate a spinal cord center, a mid-brain center and the
hypothalamus/anterior pituitary unit. All three of these have been shown to
block pain transmission by means of endorphins and/or other analgesic
neurotransmitters. Some believe that acupuncture's pain relief derives from a
combination of the neurological and humoral explanations (27).
Another theory suggests acupuncture may have localized vasodilatation
effects, which would explain the procedure's benefits specific to
musculoskeletal disorders. Dilated blood vessels are better able to eliminate
pain-producing substances such as bradykinin (a substance released from blood
plasma by some snake venoms and certain other enzymes that lowers blood pressure
and triggers pain), prostaglandins and other inflammatory products.
Another explanation is the autonomic theory, which maintains that internal
organs can be stimulated by external acupuncture points that selectively excite
parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves regulating the autonomic nervous system
The bioelectric theory tops off this confusing mix of theories. It suggests
acupuncture meridians are like direct current pathways and acupuncture points
function as amplifiers. What these theories have in common is the stimulation of
acupuncture points via insertion of small needles, application of pressure,
cupping (suction) and application of heat through moxibustion (which can be used
to raise the temperature of the needles), or infrared, laser or electrical
Interpreting Scientific Studies
Although acupuncture's successes have been tested in practice throughout
history and have attracted a following of practitioners and patients, rigorous
scientific acupuncture trials have yielded mixed results. Unfortunately, there
is no tight control of patient suitability/responsiveness or practitioner
expertise, and even studies with statistical analyses may be flawed because of
inappropriately small or non-random samples. One well-known text used to teach
biostatistics to medical and veterinary students maintains that in general,
major errors are made in the statistical treatment of data in at least 50
percent of all the papers submitted for peer review in journals (29).
Significant efforts have been made to improve the validity of statistical
inferences drawn in journal articles.
Flaws in the statistical treatment of experimental data especially are
damaging in clinical studies. Veterinarians and physicians consider their
treatment options (including acupuncture) based on the outcomes of clinical
trials. If erroneous conclusions are drawn from experimental data, patients may
be exposed to unnecessary risks, discomfort and expense. Worst of all, more
efficacious treatment may be delayed or not even attempted. It is therefore
important to read the claims made about acupuncture with a discerning eye. This
is not to say the use of statistics is an invalid and unrecognized strategy, but
be aware that errors can be made in both the experimental design and in the
conclusions drawn, so what you read always must be questioned with those caveats
Some detractors absolutely are convinced that acupuncture is little more than
"nonsense with needles" and hope it will pass from the contemporary scene and
fall into disuse like other obsolete treatments such as purging, leeching and
bleeding (30). A lack of evidence, however, is not proof that a treatment is not
effective. In the words of a colleague, "If there are no benefits derived from
the process, acupuncture would have to be categorized as one of the longest
playing scams in the history of mankind (31)".
We have barely scratched the surface of this complex and controversial
subject. However, we hope you take away from this article the following:
1) Acupuncture can be a beneficial adjunct therapy, but it has its own set of
dangers, not the least of which is the possibility of a lack of diagnosis or
misdiagnosis of problems that routinely would be identified in Western
2) Anecdotally, acupuncture works, so if you do choose to take your dog to a
veterinary acupuncturist, take it to someone who is having success in treating
3) if Western medicine has failed your dog, there is little to lose in trying
acupuncture. But do not expect it to be the miracle cure; it is not a panacea.
In the hands of some practitioners, however, it has produced successes that are
hard to explain using the principles of our current scientific and medical
John Cargill, Retired Officer of Marines, statistician and science writer,
grew up with Airedale Terriers and American Foxhounds but lives on a boat in
Florida with his 5-year-old Akita, Ch. Kimdamar's Jumbalaya Jazz (call name "JJ").
Susan Thorpe-Vargas has a doctorate in immunology and has an extensive
chemistry and lab background. She has been involved in numerous Environmental
Protection Agency cleanup sites. Susan also raises and shows Samoyeds.
1. Acupuncture was first discovered in China between 2696 BC and 2598 BC by
Huang Di, "The Yellow Emperor," who was the third great emperor of China.
Acupuncture was initiated and discovered during the Yellow Emperor's reign, and
the surviving document is the "Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine,"
translation by Ilza Veith, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif.
1993. This Yellow Emperor's classic text is the basis for acupuncture and was
the current book of medical care in the 2600s BC.
2. Author unknown, Huang Ti Nei Ching, "Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal
Medicine," published between 400 BC and 200 BC.
3. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 15, No. 6, September 14, 1836,
4. S.J. Harveill, Les Secrets de la Medicine des Chinois, Consitant et al.,
Parfaite Connoissance du Pauls, 1671.
5. Sir William Osler, The Principles and Practice of Medicine, Appleton,
6. Sheldon Altman, "Small Animal Acupuncture: Scientific Basis and Clinical
Applications," in Allen M. Schoen and Susan G. Wynn (eds.), Complementary and
Alternative Veterinary Medicine: Principles and Practice, Mosby, St. Louis,
1998, p. 147.
7. Harriet Beinfield and Efrem Korngold,
Between Heaven and Earth, Ballantine, New York, 1991.
8. M. Sanchez-Araujo and A. Puchi, "Acupuncture Enhances the Efficacy of
Antibiotics Treatment for Canine Otitis Crises," Acupuncture and Electrotherapy
Research, Vol. 22, March-April 1997, pp. 191-206.
9. F.W. Smith Jr., "Acupuncture for Cardiovascular Disorders," Problems in
Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 1992, pp. 125-131.
10. C. Schwartz, "Chronic Respiratory Conditions and Acupuncture Therapy,"
Problems in Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 1992, pp. 136-143.
11. K.C. Waters, "Acupuncture for Dermatologic Disorders," Problems in
Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 1992, pp. 194-199.
12. S.G. Dill, "Acupuncture for Gastrointestinal Disorders," Problems in
Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 1992, pp. 144-154.
13. J.H. Lin and R. Panzer, "Acupuncture for Reproductive Disorders,"
Problems in Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 1992, pp. 155-161.
14. P.A. Rogers, A.M. Shoen, and J. Limehouse, "Acupuncture for
Immune-Mediated Disorders: Literature Review and Clinical Applications,"
Problems in Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 1992, pp. 162-193.
15. Lin and Panzer.
16. A.M. Schoen, "Acupuncture for Musculoskeletal Disorders," in A.M. Schoen
(ed.), Veterinary Acupuncture: Ancient Art of Modern Medicine," Mosby, St.
Louis, 1994, pp. 159-170.
17. R. Joseph, "Neurologic Evaluation and its Relation to Acupuncture:
Acupuncture for Neurologic Disorders," Problems in Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 4,
No. 1, March 1992, pp. 98-106.
18. Lin and Panzer.
19. L.A. Janssens, "Acupuncture for the Treatment of Thoracolumbar and
Cervical Disc Disease in the Dog," Problems in Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 4, No.
1, March 1992, pp. 107-116.
20. T.E. Durkes, "Gold Bead Implants," Problems in Veterinary Medicine, Vol.
4, No. 1, March 1992, pp. 207-211.
21. Altman, p. 155.
22. A.M. Klide and S.H. Kung, Veterinary Acupuncture, University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1997.
23. A.M. Schoen (ed.), Veterinary Acupuncture: Ancient Art of Modern
Medicine, Mosby, St. Louis, 1994.
24. Cheryl Schwartz, Four Paws, Five Directions, Celestial Arts, Berkeley,
25. "The Neurophysiologic Basis of Acupuncture," in Allen M. Schoen (ed.),
Veterinary Acupuncture: Ancient Art of Modern Medicine, Mosby, St. Louis, 1994,
26. Altman, p. 156.
29. Stanton A. Glantz, Primer of Biostatistics, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New
30. Arthur Taub, "Nonsense with Needles," in Stephen Barrett, M.D., and
William Jarvis, Ph.D., (eds.), The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in
America, Prometheus Books, Amherst, N.Y., 1993. Excerpt available online at
31. Personal communication, John Pollack, Ph.D., Cornell University, Ithaca,
N.Y., May 1999.
Susan and John won the Dog Writers Association of America's Maxwell Medallion
and the Iams® Eukanuba® Canine Health Award for their articles on canine
genetics that appeared in DOG WORLD.