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Home > Education > Theory > Clinical Point Selection

The Theories Behind the Logic of Clinical Point Selection

By Dr. Ma

Table of Contents

I Selection of acupuncture points.

  1. Local Point selection
  2. Distal Point Selection
  3. Symptomatic Point Selection
  4. Specific Point Usage
  5. Points Based on Western Medical Theory

II Combining Points

  1. Combining points on the front (Yin aspect of torso) with points on the back( Yang aspect of torso)
  2. Combining Yang channel points with Yin Channel points
  3. Combining point on the left with points on the right
  4. Combining points above with points below
  5. Combining local with distal points

III Specific Points Usage

  1. Five Transporting points
  2. Back-Shu
  3. Front-Mu
  4. Yuan-Source
  5. Luo-Connecting
  6. Eight confluent points of extra meridians
  7. Xi-Cleft
  8. Lower He-Sea
  9. Crossing Points

Selection of acupuncture points.

Acupuncture treatment is administered at specific points or sites on the body. For this reason, the selection and combination of points in an acupuncture prescription is most important. At the same time, the physician must be able to choose flexibly between one or more acupuncture methods, depending upon the characteristics of the disease. Below, is a summary of point selection and combination strategies. Together with clinical applications.

1. Principles of point selection.

Point selection may be divided into three broad groupings:

  • local points chosen in the vicinity of the disease,
  • distal points chosen away from the disease,
  • points chosen for particular symptoms,
  • specific point usage,
  • points chosen based on Western medical knowledge.

In practice, each may be used in combination with, or independent of the others.

1) Local point selection.

Local refers to the vicinity of the pain. Thus, pain the head, neck forearm, low abdomen, knee, foot, etc. can be treated via points in the same locality.

Diseases of the limbs and superficial diseases of the body are commonly treated by this method.

Examples:

Pain of the knee can be treated at local points GB 34, Sp9, Sp 10, St 34, Xi Yan (St 35 with other side of patella). GB 34 is the influential points of the tendons.

Pain of the wrist is needled at SJ 4, Sj 5, or LI 5, SI 6.

Many diseases of the head and body may also be treated through local points.

Eye diseases can be treated at UB 1, GB 1,

Ear diseases at SJ 21, SI 19, GB 2,

Asthma at Ren 22, UB 13,

Stomachache at Ren 12, St 21 UB 21.

The efficacy of needling local points to treat disease can be explained not only on the basis of traditional channel theory, but more recently by neural segment theory as well. For example in acupuncture anesthesia, the point SI 18 is used for surgery on the cranium, and the point LI 18 for operations on the thyroid.

Similarly in the clinical treatment of diseases of the Viscera, it is common to select a vertebral point on the same horizontal plane as the affected organ. Choosing a point in the same or neighboring neural segment as that of the pain or disease is also compatible with the rules of traditional local point selection.

2) Distal Point Selection

Distal refers to a location far from the site of the pain, usually a point below the elbow or knee. The method is commonly used to treat diseases of internal organs.
Examples:

Lung 6 for coughing blood.

PC 6 for chest pain.

ST 36 for abdominal pain.

This method may also be used for diseases of the head and trunk.
Examples:

LI4, ST 44 for toothache, the LI channel enters the lower gums and can stop toothaches on the lower jaw. The Stomach channel enters the upper gums, St 44 can stop toothaches on the upper jaw.

SI 3 for stiff neck. because SI 3 is one of the Eight Confluent Points, intersecting with the Du Channel. Du Channel runs through the neck.

UB 54 for lower back pain. Because the UB channel runs through the lower back.

The technique of needling distal points is related to the channel theory of root and branch, whereby a disease above is treated by a point below, and vice versa.

In addition to selecting distal points according to traditional theory, they may also be selected on the basis of nerve distribution. Generally, this is most useful for treatment of disorders on the limb, whereby a point located on a nerve trunk or root above the diseases is selected for needling.
Examples:

Diseases of the fingers may be treated via points on related nerves. PC6 on the median nerve near the wrist and LI 11 on the radial nerve near the elbow as well as point on the more distant brachial plexus.

Diseases of the lower limb may be treated at GB34 on the peroneal nerve and more distally at points along the sciatic nerve or sacral plexus.

3) Symptomatic Point Selection.

Local and distal points selections are based upon the distance of the points from the site of the diseases. However, some diseases are not local but systemic in nature, and can be treated at points long associated with relieving a particular diseases. Prominent among such points are the meetings points first mentioned in the "Classic of Difficulties":

UB 17 for diseases affecting the blood (the influential point of blood)

Ren 17 for diseases of the Qi. (influential point of Qi)

Lu 9 for diseases of the vessels. (influential point of vessels)

GB 34 for diseases of the tendons. (influential point of tendons)

GB 39 for diseases of the marrow. (influential point of marrow)

UB11 for diseases of the bones. (influential point of bones)

Liver 13 for diseases of the Yin Organs, Lung, Spleen, Heart, Kidney, and Liver.

Ren 12 for diseases of the Yang organs, stomach, large and small intestine, urinary bladder, San Jiao and G.B.

Stimulation of these points has proven effective in relieving the disorders with which each is associated. The same is true of the other special point groups. Certain individual points have also traditional been useful in treating specific symptoms:

Du 14 for reducing fever, (because Du 14 is the crossing point of the 6 yang channels and Du Mai)

Du 26, for reviving patients form unconsciousness. (Du channel enters the brain.)

Pricking and Bleeding Lu 11 and SI 1 for sore throat.

LI11, Sp 10, Sp 6 for pruritus. (Itching) LI11 cleans wind and heat, Sp 10 and Sp 6 to nourish blood and expel wind evil.

Ren 4, St 36, for general weakness. Ren 4 tonifies Yuan source Qi, and Stomach 36 tonifies digestive function hence increasing Gu Qi.

Points chosen based on Western medical theory

The efficacy of needling local points to treat disease can be explained not only on the basis of traditional channel theory, but more recently by neural segment theory as well. For example in acupuncture anesthesia, the point SI 18 is used for surgery on the cranium, and the point LI 18 for operations on the thyroid.

Similarly in the clinical treatment of diseases of the Viscera, it is common to select a vertebral point on the same horizontal plane as the affected organ. Choosing a point in the same or neighboring neural segment as that of the pain or disease is also compatible with the rules of traditional local point selection.

Hua Tou Jia Ji Points treated consistant with spinal nerve distribution

C1 Treat the head, (though we use Du 15, 16, GB 20, UB 10) Neck Upper limb pain or numbness
C2
C3 Chest organs (lungs and heart)
C4
C5
C6
C7 Stop asthma
T1
T2
T3
T4 Angina Pectoris
T5 Abdominal cavity organs
T6
T7
T8
T9 Stomach
T10
T11
T12
L1 Pelvic cavity organs
L2 Lower limb pain or numbness
L3
L4
L5
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5

In addition to selecting distal points according to traditional theory, they may also be selected on the basis of nerve distribution. Generally, this is most useful for treatment of disorders on the limb, whereby a point located on a nerve trunk or root above the diseases is selected for needling.

Diseases of the fingers may be treated via points on related nerves. PC6 on the median nerve near the wrist and LI 11 on the radial nerve near the elbow as well as point on the more distant brachial plexus.

Diseases of the lower limb may be treated at GB34 on the peroneal nerve and more distally at points along the sciatic nerve or sacral plexus.

II Combining Points

In addition to the methods of individual point selection outlined above, there are several traditional methods of combining one point with others in an acupuncture prescription. These techniques are flexible, permitting many variations according to the particular needs of the case.

Combining points on the front (Yin aspect of torso) with points on the back( Yang aspect of torso).

This method is also known as the combination of abdomen-yin points and the back-yang points. Points on the front and back appropriate to a particular disease can be used in combination.
Example:

Stomach disease, both St 21 on the abdomen and UB 50 on the back could be needled in tandem.

Among the most commonly used front-back combinations are two special point groups. The Back-shu points and the front-mu points. Because these points are closely related to diseases of the Zang-fu organs.
Example:

Ren 12 (St Front Mu) and UB 21 (Stomach Back-Shu) for Stomach diseases.

Combining Yang channel points with Yin Channel points.

As we know, the primary yang channels are connected with the primary Yin channels in a yin/yang relationship. By combining a point on a yang channel with another on its paired yin channel, the cumulative effect is greater than needling either point separately.
Examples:

Combining Stomach 36 on the yang channel with Sp 4 on the yin channel for stomach diseases.

Lung 9 with LI 11, on the paired Yang channel, for coughing.

The most well-known combinations of this kind are between the Yuan-Source points on the first channel, primarily affected by a disease, and the Luo-Connecting point on the paired channel. In this combination the source point is called the "host," and the connecting point is called the "guest."
Example:

Diseases affecting the Lung channel may be treated through that channel's source point (Lu 9) in combination with the Luo-connecting point (LI 6) of its paired Yang partner, the Large Intestine channel.

Conversely, a disease affecting the Large intestine channel could be treated by that channel's source point, (LI 4,) together with the connecting point, (Lu 7) of its Yin partner, the lung channel.

The method would also encompass the use of a single point, the Luo connecting point of the paired channel.
Example:

For a disease associated with the kidney channel, UB 58, the Luo-connecting point of the Kidney's paired meridian would be chosen. Conversely, diseases of the UB can be treated by Kidney 4, the Kidney's Luo-Connecting point.

Combining point on the left with points on the right.

Because channel points are bilateral, it is common to treat diseases of the internal organs by manipulating the same point on both sides in order to strengthen the effect.
Example:

UB 21 on both left and right sides of the spine, or St 36 on both legs can be needled to treat diseases of the stomach.

Further, because of the intersection of the channels on the right side with those on the left, a point on the right may be chose to treat a disease of pain on the left side of the body, and vice versa.
Example:

In the case of "stroke," not only may a point on the side affected by the paralysis be selected, but the same point on the healthy side may be used as well.

Combining points above with points below.

Above refers to point on the arms and above the waist, (Ren 8). Below refers to points on the legs or below the waist (Ren 8). This method of point combination is most commonly practiced on the limbs.
Example:

In the case of stomach diseases, PC 6 on the arm maybe combined with St 36 on the leg.

For toothache, LI 4 of the hand can be combined with St 44 on the foot.

Traditionally, a distinctive use of the above-below combination was made with respect to the confluent points of the eight extraordinary channels. A confluent point on an extraordinary channel affected by a disease above, would be combined in an acupuncture prescription with a meeting point on a extraordinary channel below.
Example:

For diseases of the heart, chest, abdomen, PC 6 on the arm may be combined with Sp 4 on the foot.

For ear ringing, SJ 5, on the arm can be combined with GB 41 on the foot.

Combining local with distal points.

Example:

When there is stomach problems, the local points Ren 12 and UB 21 or the distal points St 36, PC 6 and Sp4, could be used separately. The combination method, however, uses both the local and distal points together.

Specific Points Usage:

Specific points are those on the fourteen meridians with specific therapeutic significance. Since specific points have different distributions and effects, they bare different names. The following represents a brief description of their applications.

The Five Transporting points. (Five-Shu)

These are five points on the twelve regular channels, namely the Jing-well, Ying-spring, Shu-stream, Jing-river, and He-sea.

The five transporting points may be selected according to their therapeutic properties.

Jing-well points are selected for fullness in the epigastrium. (Liver/wood element disharmony)

Ying-spring points are for febrile diseases. (Heart/fire element Difficulties)

Shu-stream points are for a heavy sensation of the body and/or painful joints. (Spleen/earth element problems)

Jing-river points are for cough and asthma due to pathogenic cold or heat. (Lung/metal element ailments)

He-sea points are for diarrhea due to rebellious Qi or Zang organ disharmony. (Kidney/water element afflictions)

Explanation:

Jing-well points on the Yin channels belong to the wood element. Jing-well points on the Yang channels belong to the metal element. Because metal controls wood, tonifying the Jing-well points on the Yang channels well result in the sedation of liver energy which is often the needed treatment. Also, you can sedate the Jing-well points on the Yin channels for a similar effect.

Another way to use the Jing-well points that treat more than just the Wood element, can be found in using Pc-9 with Kid-1. This technique makes use of the above/below combination which, in this case, has the effect of balancing fire (Pericardium) and water (Kidney) which balances above and below along with fire and water. Connecting the Qi of these two opposing elemental forces calms the Shen.

Ying-spring for Febrile diseases and Heart disharmony.

Heart belongs to fire. Febrile diseases are "fiery."

Signs and symptoms include: Irritability and sleeplessness, sores on the tongue and the lips, flushed face, thirst, painful and dark colored urine, dry stool, hematemesis (vomiting blood), nosebleeds, delirium or mania in severe cases, red tongue with yellow coat, rapid pulse.

Again, Tonifying the grandmother of fire, (water) which is found at the Ying-spring points of the Yang channels will sedate the fire element's fire. Sedating the Yin channel's Ying-spring (fire) points will help to turn down the fire in the heart or elsewhere.

Shu-stream points for spleen diseases and/or a heavy sensation of the body and/or painful joints.

Shu-stream points are for heavy sensations in the body and painful joints due to spleen Qi deficiency. This Qi Xu will also diminish the efficiency of the Spleen's function of transportation and transformation. With this hypofunction, dampness will be stored up within the body, or lead to a Splenic disorder due to cold-damp retention within the Spleen proper.

Signs and symptoms include: sensation of fullness in the abdomen, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, weakened limbs, loose stool, pale tongue with white greasy coat, and slow, soft pulse.

Sedating the grandmother of earth (wood) which is found at the Shu-stream points of the Yang channels will serve to tonify earth. Tonifying the Shu-stream points on the Yin channels will help to build up the strength of the earth element and the end of Splenic disharmony.

Jing-river for lung diseases and/or cough and asthma due to pathogenic cold or heat.

Jing-river points are for cough and asthma due to pathogenic cold or heat. Lungs belongs to metal, when lungs are attacked by pathogenic wind-cold or wind-heat, obstruction of the Lung Qi results.

Signs and Symptoms include: Cough, asthma, dry throat, sore throat hoarseness, and nasal obstruction.

Sedating the grandmother of metal (fire) which is found at the Jing-river points of the Yang channels will serve to tonify metal. Tonifying the Jing-river points on the Yin channels will help to build up the strength of the metal element and the end of Metal disharmonies.

He-sea for Kidney diseases and/or diarrhea due to rebellious Qi.

When the Kidney Qi is deficient, it is unable to grasp the Da Qi of the lungs. Signs and symptoms include: Shortness of breath, dyspnea, and difficult inhalation (normal exhalation).

Another area affected by Kidney Qi deficiency is its reinforcement and astringent functions.

Signs and symptoms include: enuresis (withholding of urine), spermatorrhea, diarrhea, pale tongue with white fur, and a deep and weak pulse. Sedating the grandmother of water (earth) which is found at the He-sea points of the Yang channels will serve to tonify water. Tonifying the Jing-river points on the Yin channels will help to build up the strength of the water element and the end of water disharmonies.


Channel Jing-Well Ying-Spring Shu-Stream Jing-River He-Sea
Lung Lu 11 Lu 10 Lu 9 Lu 8 Lu 5
Pericardium P 9 P 8 P 7 P 5 P 3
Heart H 9 H 8 H 7 H 4 H 3
Spleen (Pancreas) Sp 1 Sp 2 Sp 3 Sp 5 Sp 9
Liver Liv 1 Liv 2 Liv 3 Liv 4 Liv 8
Kidney K 1 K 2 K 3 K 7 K 10
Large Intestine L.I. 1 L.I. 2 L.I. 3 L.I. 5 L.I. 11
San Jiao SJ 1 SJ 2 SJ 3 SJ 6 SJ 10
Small Intestine S.I. 1 S.I. 2 S.I. 3 S.I. 5 S.I. 8
Stomach St 45 St 44 St 43 St 41 St 36
Gall Bladder GB 44 GB 43 GB 41 GB 38 GB 34
Urinary Bladder UB 67 UB 66 UB 65 UB 60 UB 40

How to use Transportation points in a mother/son combination for tonifying and sedating.

As mentioned earlier, the Jing-well, Ying-spring, Shu-stream, Jing-river and He-sea points of the channels are attributed to the five elements.

On the Yin channels, the order, from the Jing-well point upward from distal to proximal, is wood, fire, earth, metal, and water.

On the Yang channels, the order, from the Jing-well point upward from distal to proximal, is metal, water, wood, fire, earth.

One way in which these points can be therapeutically utilized is by selecting them according to their relationships in the five element model.

Inter-promoting (mother to son), interacting (grandmother to grandson), overacting (too much grandmother to grandson), and counteracting (grandson pushing back to grandmother).

Beginning with the interpromoting relationship of the five elements, each channel has a "mother" point and a "son" point. The "mother point" of a channel has a reinforcing effect on that channel, while the "son point" has a reducing effect. In the case of an excess condition, one can reinforce the mother and reduce the son on the affected channel.

In clinical practice, the two needle method as was just described can be used on the mother and son points of the affected channel, or on the points along the mother and son channels.

Mother-Son treatment with both points on the affected channel:

The Liver channel pertains to wood. An excess syndrome of the Liver channel can be treated by sedating Liver 2, the fire point on the Liver channel. Fire is the son of wood and Liver 2 is the fire point on the Liver channel, hence sedating the son will give the mother a chance to settle down from her excess state.

The deficiency state of the Liver channel can be treated by tonifying Liver 8, because this is the water point on the Liver channel, and water is the mother of wood, so when mom feels good, she can better nourish her son. Liver 8 is the mother point of the Liver channel. This is using the principle of "tonifying the mother for deficiency syndrome."

Then there is the technique of using the same principle, but on the mother and son channels, rather than the mother and son points on the same channel

Mother-son treatment with points on the mother or son channel..

For an excess syndrome of the Liver channel, one would treat the Ying-spring point on the Heart channel (Heart 8), because the Heart is the Fire channel. That makes it Liver's son. Ht 8 is the horary (fire) point on Liver's son channel, hence you are "sedating the son for excess syndromes."

Deficiency syndromes of the Liver channel can be treated by tonifying the horary point on the mother channel which is the kidney. Kidney 10 is the horary point (water point on the water channel). This technique is based on the principle of "tonifying the mother for deficiency syndromes."

Mother-son treatments with points based on the interior/exterior relationship.

For a deficiency syndrome of the Liver channel, reinforcing GB 43, the mother point of the GB channel will tonify wood because GB 43 is the mother point on the Yang wood channel.

Excess syndromes of the Liver channel can be treated by reducing GB 38, the son point of the GB channel. Because GB 38 is the fire point and hence the son point on the Yang wood channel.

Back-shu and Front-mu Points.

The Back-Shu and Front-Mu points are closely related to diseases of the Zang-Fu organs. When there is the pathogenic change in the Zang-Fu organ, a palpitated reaction to this change, in the form of tenderness or sensitivity, can be detected in the corresponding Back-Shu or Front-Mu point. Thus, whenever an internal organ is affected, the Back-Shu point and the Front-Mu points pertaining to that organ may be prescribed either independently or in combination with other specific points as will be demonstrated later.

Yin diseases of the Zang-Fu organs can be treated with Back-Shu points. Yin diseases (this includes Zang organ syndromes, deficiency syndromes and cold syndromes) can all be treated with the Back-shu points. Yin diseases reach Yang. The Evil Qi of the Yin diseases may reach the back-shu points. This is called "Treating Yang for Yin diseases." Another deep thought is "Lead Yin evil out through Yang points." So, needling the Back-shu points to treat Yin diseases leads the evil Qi out through the Back-shu points.

For example, UB 13 on the back is needled to treat productive cough, fullness in the chest, etc. due to Yin-type diseases of the lung, in this case, Wind cold.

Yang diseases can be treated with the front-Mu points. Yang diseases may include Fu organ syndromes, excess syndromes, or heat syndromes. "Yang diseases reach Yin." The Qi of Yang diseases may reach the Front-Mu points. The treatment principle is then called "Treating Yin for Yang diseases". Utilizing the therapeutics of "leading Yang evil out through the Yin points." Thus, needling the front-Mu points to treat Yang diseases is leading the evil Qi out through the front-Mu points.

For example, Ren 3 (the Front-Mu of the U.B.) is needled to treat copious, frequent urination, burning pain in the urethra, dark yellow urine, etc. due to Damp-Heat in the U.B..

The back-Shu points above (and including) UB 17 can, in addition to the Yin diseases described above, treat Yang diseases such as Exterior cold or heat, chest or back pain (due to Lung heat, or wind heat or cold). UB 13 can treat common cold expelling wind heat or wind cold evil. Which explains why the Lung Shu point is so versatile for Lung or exterior disharmonies.

The Front-Mu under the level of Ren 8 can treat Yin diseases as well as Yang in the same way as the Back-Shu points above UB 17 can treat Yang. For example, Ren 4 can treat leanness due to consumption; Qi, Yang, Yin, or Jing collapse; or stroke associated with extreme Qi, Yin, Yang, or Jing Xu. It's a strong point.

The reason back-Shu points above UB 17 are good for Yang diseases as well as Yin, is because they are situated on the Yang (top half) of the Yang aspect of the torso (the back) . The are like "Yang within Yang" and since "Ultimate Yang becomes Yin", they begin to take on the Yin functions of treating Yang diseases. The same thing applies to the front-Mu points below the level of Ren 8. The are found on the Yin aspect of the body, and the lower, or Yin half of the abdomen, and hence they represent "ultimate Yin" which can begin to take on Yang attributes and thus, treat Yin syndromes.

Combining points on the Back-Shu with points on the Front-Mu.

Certain disease syndromes are not simple, they can exhibit signs of both excess and deficiency. In these cases, it is appropriate to use both the front-Mu and back-Shu points.

UB 13 + Lu 1 = treatment of Lung diseases.

UB 18 + Liv 14 = treatment of Liver diseases.

UB 19 + GB 24 = treatment of Gall Bladder diseases.

UB 21 + Ren 12 = treatment of Stomach diseases.

UB 25 + St 25 = treatment of Large Intestine diseases.

UB 28 + Ren 3 = treatment of Urinary Bladder diseases.

Combining Front-Mu points with lower He-sea points on the Yang channels, treats Yang diseases (Fu organ syndromes, excess syndromes, heat syndromes)

Note: Lower He-sea implies the three extra He-sea points from the hand Yang channels as well as the three He-sea points on the foot yang channels as was discussed earlier.

For example: St 25 (L.I. Front-Mu) + St 37 (L.I. Lower He-sea) = treatment of Damp-Heat in the Large Intestine.

According to the Nei Jing. it is written that "Lower He-sea points treat Fu organ diseases."

Combining Back-shu points with Yuan-source points treats yin diseases

(Zang organ syndromes, deficiency syndromes, cold syndromes).

For example:

UB 13 (Lung back-Shu) + Lu 9 (Lung Yuan-source point) = treatment of asthma due to Lung Qi deficiency.

UB 23 (Kidney back-Shu) + Kid 3 (Kidney Yuan-source point) = treatment of spermatorrhea due to Kidney Qi deficiency.

Back-Shu points and Yuan-source points can both treated deficiency diseases. Together, their effects are enhanced.

Yuan Source Points.

The Yuan-source points are located on the six Yang channels, and arranged behind the Shu-Stream points of the Five Transporting points. On the six Yin channels, you'll find the Yuan-source points conveniently located smack-dab on the Shu-stream points.

The Yuan-source points are closely related to San Jiao. Acupuncture on the Yuan-source points can dredge the source Qi in the San Jiao and regulate the functions of the internal organs. Hence, Yuan-source points can treat diseases of both the Zang and Fu organs.

Combining Yuan-source points of Zang organs with Yuan-source points of Fu organs.

Yuan-source points of Yang channels on the hand combined with the Yuan-source points of the Yin channels on the foot. (OR) The Yuan-source points of Yin channels on the hand combined with Yuan-source points of Yang channels on the foot.

This technique is beneficial when treating diseases that effect the entire body. Using the hand and foot Yuan-source points together, circulates the Qi's therapeutic action throughout the entire body.

For example:

Liver 3, (Yuan-source point of the Liver meridian of foot Jue Yin) combines with L.I. 4, (Yuan-source point of L.I. meridian of hand Yang Ming) for dizziness, tinnitus, numb limbs and tight tendons due to Liver yin deficiency.

Yuan-source points combining with the Luo-connecting points (connecting internally, externally related channels).

Most beneficial when internally/externally related pairs of channels have a disease together.

Yuan-source points combined with Back-Shu points.

Back-Shu points and Yuan-source points can both treated deficiency diseases. Together, their effects are enhanced. What, you didn't get it last time this came up?

Yuan-source points combined with He-sea points or lower He-sea points.

Interior/Exterior channel relationships. Yuan-source points of Yin channels combined with He-sea or lower He-sea points of Yang channels.
For example:

Sp 3 (Yuan-source point of Spleen channel) combined with St 36 (He-sea point of Stomach channel) for abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

Liv 3 (Yuan-source point of Liver channel) combined with GB 34 (He-sea point of GB channel) for dizziness, bitter taste or dryness in the mouth, burning pain in the chest and hypochondrium due to Liver or G.B. fire.

This combination of points (Yuan + He-Sea) is used when the etiology of the disease is a disharmony between the internally/externally related organs.

Same channel. Yuan-source point combined with He-sea point on the same channel.

L.I. 4 (Yuan-source point of L.I. channel) combined with L.I. 11 (He-sea point of L.I. channel) for headache, toothache, sore throat, dry mouth all due to wind-heat evil.

Liver 3 (Yuan-source) combined with Liver 8 (He-sea) for distention. Cramping and cold pain in the perineum and lower abdomen, or pain from contraction of the scrotum due to accumulation of cold in the Liver channel.

Different Channels, not internally/externally related.

L.I. 4 combined with St. 36. Regulates Stomach and L.I. for treatment of dry stool.

LI 4 to tonify Jin (as in Jin/Ye) and St. 36 tonifies the stomach to push the fecal matter out the intestines.

Liver 3 combined with St. 36. Disperses stagnated Liver Qi, regulates Stomach Qi, for treatment of stomachache due to Liver Qi stagnation. Regulates liver qi and tonifies earth that has been attacked by wood.

Luo-Connecting Points

The Luo-connecting points are closely related to collaterals. A Luo-connecting point connects with its partner in the Interior/Exterior relationship. That's why the Luo-connecting points are indicated in the syndromes of their partners in the Interior/Exterior relationship.

For instance, Spleen 4, the Luo-connecting points of the spleen channel of foot tai yin, can treat not only the diseases of the Spleen channel, but also those of teh Stomach channel. Lu-7, the Luo-connecting point of the LUng channel of Hand Tai Yin can treat not only the diseases of the Lung channel (cough, asthma), but also those of the L.I. channel (toothache, head and neck diseases).

As for Du 1, Ren 15, and Sp 21 (The Luo-connecting point of the so-called "Greater Collateral of the Spleen, rules collaterals and blood vessels), they are mainly selected to treat their respective diseased parts and disorders of the internal organs.

Eight Confluent points of the extra meridians.

"Yi Xue Ru Men" (Introduction to Medicine) says that "among the 360 points on the whole body, 66 points are located at the four extremities are important, and among these 66 points, the Eight Confluent points are considered the most important."

The Eight Confluent points are the points where the extra meridians connect to the 12 primary meridians.

There are four Luo-connecting points among the eight confluent points. They are Pc-6, Sp-4, SJ-5, Lu-7, and two Shu-Stream points which are SI-3 and GB-41. (UB-62, Kid 6 have no function other than their connections to the Eight Extras-Yin Qiao Mai and Yang Qiao Mai.)

In practice, the eight confluent points of extra meridians may be used independently.

Sp-4 for diseases of the Spleen, Stomach, and Chong Mai.

Pc-6 for diseases of the P.C., Heart, San Jiao, and Yin Wei Mai.

Lu-7 for diseases of the Lung, L.I., and Ren Mai.

Ki-6 for diseases of the Kidney and Yin Qiao Mai.

SJ-5 for diseases of the San Jiao, Pericardium and Yang Wei Mai.

GB-41 for diseases of the Gall Bladder, and Dai Mai.

SI-3 for diseases of the Small Intestine and Du Mai.

UB 62 for diseases of the U.B. and Yang Qiao Mai.

The confluent points on the upper limb can be combined with the confluent points on the lower limb.

Sp-4 is combined with PC-6 to specifically treat diseases of the Heart, Chest, and Stomach. (The curative effect is wonderful!)

Lu-7 is combined with Ki-6 to specifically treat diseases of the Lung, chest, throat and diaphragm.

SJ-5 is combined with GB-41 to specifically treat diseases of the outer canthus, ear, shoulder, neck or cheek.

SI-3 is combined with UB 62 to specifically treat diseases of the inner canthus, nape, shoulder.

Xi-Cleft Points

Each of the 12 regular channels has one Xi-Cleft point. In addition one Xi-Cleft point can be found on each of Yin Wei, Yang Wei, Yin Qiao, Yang Qiao Channels. There are 16 Xi-Cleft points in all. The Xi-Cleft points are used primarily in treatment of the acute pain and diseases appearing in their corresponding channels and organs can stop pain and/or bleeding.

Xi-Cleft on the Yin channels can stop bleeding.
For example:

Lu 6 for hemoptysis.

Sp 8 for Menorrhagia

Xi-Cleft on the Yang channels can stop pain.
For example:

L.I. 7 for toothache, sort throat, headache.

St. 34 for Stomachache

Lower He-Sea Points

"The Disorders of the Six Fu organs can be treated by the He-Sea points" (Miraculous Pivot-Ling Shu) According to this theory, the lower He-sea points are selected to treat diseases of their respective Fu organs.
For instance:

Dysentery and appendicitis is treated by St-37, because St 37 is the lower He-sea point of the L.I. channel.

UB 39 is used for retention of Urine due to dysfunction of San Jiao.

Crossing Points:

These are points located at the intersection of two or more channels. The channels that cross can be primary, extraordinary, or both. They can be used to treat disorders of each of their pertaining channels. They are often used to treat the diseases simultaneously in meridians intersecting each other.

For example: Sp-6, a crossing point for the three foot yin channels, used for diseases of the liver, spleen and kidney channels.

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