Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats
Cheng D, et al. Department of Transfusion, The First Hospital of China Medical University,
North Nanjing Street No. 155, Shenyang 110001, China.
The Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of GBE on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally. GBE (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w.) was administered orally once a day for a period of 30 days. Body weight and blood glucose levels were determined in different experimental days. Serum lipid profile and antioxidant
enzymes in hepatic and pancreatic tissue were measured at the end of the experimental period. Significant
decreases in body weight and antioxidant ability and increases in blood glucose, lipid profile, and lipid
peroxidation were observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The administration of GBE and glibenclamide daily
for 30 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. GBE possesses
antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemia activities in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats,
which promisingly support the use of GBE as a food supplement or an adjunct treatment for diabetics.
Biomed Res Int.2013;2013:162724. Epub 2012 Dec 20.
Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Aqueous
Extract of Centipeda minima (E Bu Xi Cao)
Huang SS, et al. School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, China
Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Centipeda minima (L.) is traditionally used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatments of rhinitis, sinusitis, relieving pain, reducing swelling, and treating cancer for a long history in Taiwan. However, there is no scientific evidence which supports the use in the literature. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of C. minima (ACM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The following activities were investigated: antioxidant activities [2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl)], and anti-inflammatory [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages and paw-edema induced by λ-carrageenan (Carr)]. We also investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of ACM via studies of the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edema paw. Serum NO, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were also measured in vivo. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of ACM was established. RESULTS: ACM showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. ACM also had highest contents of polyphenol and flavonoid contents. We evaluated that ACM and the reference compound of protocatechualdehyde and caffeic acid decreased the LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells. Administration of ACM showed a concentration dependent inhibition on paw edema development after Carr treatment in mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of ACM could be via NO, TNF-α, and IL-1β suppressions
and associated with the increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Western blotting revealed that
ACM decreased Carr-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions.
CONCLUSIONS: Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of ACM might be correlated to the decrease in the level of
Malondialdehyde (MDA), iNOS, and COX-2 via increasing the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx in the edema
paw. Overall, the results showed that ACM demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, which
supports previous claims of the traditional use for inflammation and pain.
J Ethnopharmacol.2013 Mar 15. pii: S0378-8741(13)00168-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.025.
The Anti-Arthritic Effects of Aconitum vilmorinianum, a Folk Herbal Medicine in
Li M, et al. State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China (CUHK),
Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, PR China.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconiti Radix (AC) and Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix (AK) are two traditional Chinese medicines commonly used to treat joint pain and arthritis. In Southwestern China, Huangcaowu (AV), the root of Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom., has long been used as a local substitute for these herbs for analgesia and anti-inflammation. However, its anti-arthritic effects have not been investigated. AIM OF STUDY: To investigate the anti-arthritic effects of Huangcaowu (AV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mono-arthritis in SD rats was induced by unilateral intra-articular injection of Freund's complete adjuvant. Physiological saline was injected in the contralateral knee. Seventy five percent ethanol extracts of AV (10mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day), AC (100mg/kg/day) and AK (100mg/kg/day) were administered to rats by oral gavage for 14 consecutive days (Day -6 to Day 7) while arthritis was induced at the seventh day (Day 0). The anti-arthritic effects of the herbs were assessed by measuring allodynia, swelling, hyperaemia and the vascular permeability of the knee joints. RESULTS: AV (10mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day), AC (100mg/kg/day) and AK (100mg/kg/day) suppressed joint allodynia. AV (10mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day) and AK (100mg/kg/day) significantly reduced join swelling and hyperaemia while AC (100mg/kg/day) did not. AV (100mg/kg/day) attenuated vascular
permeability while AC (100mg/kg/day) and AK (100mg/kg/day) showed no improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Huangcaowu
(AV) significantly improved allodynia, swelling, hyperaemia and vascular permeability in arthritic knee
joints. It showed the highest anti-arthritic effects among the three tested Aconitum herbs.
J Ethnopharmacol.2013 Feb 22. pii: S0378-8741(13)00112-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.02.018.