Neuroprotective Effects of Yi Gan
San on MPP+/MPTP-Induced Cytotoxicity
Doo AR, et al. Studies of Translational Acupuncture Research
(STAR), Acupuncture & Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC), Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea;
Department of Meridian and Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Republic of
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A traditional herb, Yi-Gan San, has been widely used for
the management of neurodegenerative disorders in traditional East Asian Medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The
present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Yi-Gan San in
1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and
in vivo and sought to clarify its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of Yi-Gan San
on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine was measured in terms of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium
bromide assays, caspase-3 activity, and western blot analysis of phosphorylated Akt, one of the
survival-related signaling proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of Yi-Gan San were also confirmed in the
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinsonian mouse model using a rotarod test and
tyrosine hydroxylase-immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Pretreatment of Yi-Gan San with
1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine showed a significant protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells and significantly
decreased the level of caspase-3 activity compared to the values for the
1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-treated cells. This process increased the protein expressions of phosphorylated
Akt, and an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt, LY294002, significantly decreased
this protective effect of Yi-Gan San. In the mouse Parkinson's disease model, treatment with Yi-Gan San
also significantly improved motor functioning and prevented dopaminergic loss related to
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine challenge. CONCLUSION: Using both in vitro and in vivo
methods, this study revealed that Yi-Gan San has neuroprotective effects and rescues dopaminergic neurons
from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity, possibly via the
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 12.
The Effect of Acorus Gramineus (Shi Chang Pu) on
the Bioavailabilities and Brain Concentrations of Ginsenosides Rg1, Re and Rb1
Wang W, et al. Institute of Medicinal Plant Development
(IMPLAD), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 151, Malianwa North Road,
Haidian District, Beijing 100193, PR China.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effect of Acorus gramineus (AG), a supposed 'delivering servant'
according to traditional Chinese medicine principles governing multi-herb formula preparation and
formulation, on facilitating the uptake of ginsenosides Rg1, Re and Rb1 to the brain after oral
administration of Kai-Xin-San (KXS) preparations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ginseng extracts or KXS with or
without AG were administered to rats for pharmacokinetic study and mice for behaviour tests at a dose of
3g ginseng per kg. The concentrations of ginsenosides in plasma and brain were determined by an
LC-MS/MS method, whilst the effects of preparations on spatial learning were evaluated using the Morris
water maze test. RESULTS: KXS in the presence of AG tended to significantly reverse the learning
impairment induced by scopolamine. The presence of AG in the KXS formula led to increases in the initial
absorption rate and extent of Rg1 and Re in terms of Cmax1 and AUC(0-3h) compared to KXS without AG.
Although KXS were found to increase the bioavailabilities and brain concentrations of ginsenosides
relative to ginseng extract, the brain-to-plasma AUC(0-12h) ratios appeared not to be affected.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the presence of AG in the KXS formula promoted the initial
absorption of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re in the gastrointestinal tract, but unlikely affected the
brain-to-plasma AUC ratios.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jun 30.
Protective Effect of Smilax Glabra (Tu Fu Ling)
Extract Against Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats
Xia D, et al. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang
Chinese Medical University, 84th Mailbox, 548 Binwen Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310053, China.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Smilax glabra Roxb. is a traditional Chinese herb, the
rhizome of Smilax glabra has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of lead poisoning. AIMS OF THE
STUDY: The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of Smilax glabra extract (SGE)
individually or combined with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) against the effects of lead acetate
on oxidative stress and lead burden in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The biochemical parameters and
enzymes in different treated rats were determined by commercial kits. The metal concentrations were
measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS: SGE (300mg/kg) showed very low toxicity
to organs in non-lead exposed rats. Administration of SGE individually had no effect on blood zinc
protoporphyrin (ZPP) level but significantly enhanced the glutathione (GSH) content and
delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase
(ALP) activities in lead exposed rats. The co-treatment of SGE and DMSA had a synergism in increasing
brain, liver and kidney superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and GSH level, and
decreasing oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels.
Moreover, the co-treatment could improve the hepatic and renal histopathology changes. SGE as
chelating agent showed significant efficiency in reducing blood and tissue lead burden.
CONCLUSIONS: The in vivo results suggested that SGE individually or combined with DMSA exhibited
remarkable protective effects on lead-induced oxidative stress and lead burden in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 20;130(2):414-420.