Effect of Needling at Waiguan (SJ5) on Brain Glucose Metabolism in Patients with Cerebral Infarction
Liu ET1, et al.
OBJECTIVE: To observe changes of brain glucose metabolism by needling at Waiguan (SJ5) in cerebral infraction (CI) patients using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission computer tomography (PET/CT), thus exploring its effect and mechanisms. METHODS: A total of 21 patients with CI were recruited in this study. The location of lesion was limited to the left basal ganglia by CT or MRI scan. All patients were randomly assigned to three groups. i.e., the acupoint group (Group A), the non-acupoint group (Group B), the blank control group (Group C), 7 in each group. Patients in Group A were needled at right Waiguan (SJ5). Those in Group B were needled at non-acupoint [10 mm beside Waiguan (SJ5)], whereas those in Group C did not receive any treatment. All patients underwent PET/CT head scan. All data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 13.0 Software and SPM8 Software. RESULTS: Compared with Group C, glucose metabolism increased in bilateral superior temporal gyrus (BA38), right superior frontal gyrus (BA9), left cingulate gyrus (BA24), left culmen and pyramis of cerebellum, and right cerebellar tonsil of cerebellum in Group A. Compared with Group C, glucose metabolism increased in bilateral superior frontal gyrus (BA6, BA9, BA10), bilateral middle frontal gyrus (BA6, BA10), left middle frontal gyrus (BA4), bilateral uncus of limbic lobe (BA36, BA38), left cingulate gyrus (BA24, BA31), left posterior cingulate gyrus (BA30), left precuneus (BA7), left inferior parietal lobule (BA4), and left lingual gyrus of occipital lobe (BA18) in Group B. Compared with Group B, glucose metabolism increased in bilateral superior temporal gyrus (BA22, BA38), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA47), left culmen and cerebellar tonsil of cerebellum in Group A. Activated encephalic regions of needling at Waiguan (SJ5) were mainly dominated in the healthy side, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. Activated encephalic regions of cerebellum were located at the left cerebellar hemisphere, left culmen
of anterior cerebella lobe, and bilateral cerebellar tonsil of posterior cerebella lobe. CONCLUSIONS:
Needling at Waiguan (SJ5) of CI patients induced increased glucose metabolism in local cerebral regions.
Functional neuroimaging using PET/CT could directly reflect changes of brain glucose metabolism by
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2013 Oct;33(10):1345-51.
Discovery of Glycyrrhetinic Acid as an Orally Active, Direct Inhibitor
of Blood Coagulation Factor Xa
Jiang L1, et al.
INTRODUCTION: Factor Xa (FXa) plays an important role in blood coagulation. This study investigated glycyrrhetinic acid, a small molecule derived from Chinese herbs, and whether it has a direct inhibitory effect on FXa to display its anticoagulant activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enzyme activities of FXa, plasmin, trypsin and thrombin, inhibition of FXa enzyme kinetics and plasma clotting time by glycyrrhentinic acid were performed in vitro. A rat tail-bleeding model and a rat venous stasis model were also used to evaluate in vivo tail-bleeding time and thrombus formation, respectively. RESULTS: Glycyrrhetinic acid in vitro directly inhibited FXa uncompetitivly with IC50 of 32.6±1.24μmol/L, and displayed 2-, 14- and 20-fold selectivity for FXa when compared to plasmin, thrombin and trypsin, respectively. The plasma clotting time was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The prothrombin time doubled (PT2), when the concentration of glycyrrhetinic acid reached 2.02mmol/L. During in vivo experiments intragastric administration of glycyrrhetinic acid caused a dose-dependent reduction in thrombus weight on the rat venous stasis model (all P<0.05). 50mg/kg glycyrrhetinic acid resulted in 34.8% of venous thrombus weight lost, compared to the control. In addition, 200, 300 and 400mg/kg
doses of glycyrrhetinic acid caused a moderate hemorrhagic effect in the rat tail-bleeding model by
prolonging bleeding time 1.1-, 1.5- and 1.9-fold compared to the control, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:
Glycyrrhetinic acid is a direct inhibitor of FXa that is effective by oral administration, and with
further research could be used to treat blood coagulation disorders.
Thromb Res. 2013 Dec 22. pii: S0049-3848(13)00611-7. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2013.12.025. [Epub ahead of print]
Effect of Acupuncture on the p53 Protein Expression of Mice with Alzheimer's Disease
Liu JF1, et al.
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture method for benefiting qi, regulating blood, supplementing the root, and cultivating the essence (BQRBSRCE) on the p53 protein expression of mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: SAMP8 mice were divided into the control group, the acupuncture group, and the non-acupoint group. The homologous SAMR1 control group was set up. Mice in the acupuncture group used acupuncture method for BQRBSRCE by needling at Tanzhong (RN17), Zhongwan (RN12), Qihai (RN6), and bilateral Xuehai (SP10), and bilateral Zusanli (ST36).Two fixed non-acupoints from bilateral ribs were needled in the non-acupoint group. The p53 protein expression in the cortex and hippocampus of mice was determined using Western blot. The pathological changes of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, the temporal lobe, and the occipital lobe were observed using HE staining. The expression of cortical p53-positive cells was detected by immunohistochemical assay. RESULTS: The p53 protein was highly expressed in the cortex of SAMP8, which was significantly down-regulated after acupuncture, showing statistical difference when compared with the SAMP8 control group (P < 0.05), but with no statistical difference when compared with the SAMR1 control group (P > 0.05). Needling at non-acupoints had no obvious effect on the p53 protein expression. There was no statistical difference in the p53 protein expression of the hippocampus (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture method for BQRBSRCE could down-regulate
the p53 protein expression in the brain of mice, improve the pathological state of brain cells, thus
enhancing learning and memory capabilities of AD mice, improving their cognitive functions, with
specificity of acupoints.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2013 Oct;33(10):1367-71.